How does a passenger lift work?
A passenger lift is completely enclosed, it has a lift car that travels vertically within a lift shaft. Passenger lifts transport people between floors at a fairly quick speed. The controls are designed to give the most economical distribution of passengers throughout the building. The working components of a lift car aren’t visible to the eye, the mechanics of the lift are above, below and around the car.
The main features of a passenger lift
- One or more cars that rise up and down.
- Counterweights that balance the cars.
- An electric motor that hoists the cars up and down, including a braking system. Some lifts use a hydraulic mechanism instead.
- A system of strong metal cables and pulleys running between the cars and the motors.
- Various safety systems to protect the passengers if a cable breaks.
- In larger buildings, an electronic control system directs the cars to the correct floors using a so-called “elevator algorithm” to ensure larger numbers of people are moving up and down in the quickest and safest way.
Traction Motor Lifts
Traction lifts are referred to like all sorts of things, including cable lifts, counterweight lifts or rope lifts. Some traction lifts also have gears in between the motor and sheave (geared lift), others will just connect the motor directly to the sheave (gearless lift).
The cables/ropes are typically a multi-strand steel material for security, implying that on the off chance that one of the strands breaks, the cable still holds the lift car up.
For the most part, the running machinery is held in a different room, called a Machine Room. When seeing Traction Lifts it is key that you have space for the machine room. There are also ‘MRL’ (Machine Room Less) traction lifts though, which may have the machine room on top of the lift that could add 500mm on top of the lift.
How does Traction Motor Lifts work?
Traction lifts are a basic system. A motor is connected to a sheave (a toothed pulley), with a rope or cable looped over it. The rope is connected at one end to the left car, and on the opposite end to a counterweight.
At the point when the lift is called to a floor, the motor turns the sheave. This motor can move in two directions – one moving the lift car up, the other moving it down.
As the lift car rises, the counterweight lowers – and vice versa. The counterweight means there is less strain on the motor and system, meaning less force and power is needed to move the car up or down. Think of a see-saw – if there’s just a single individual on it, it takes more energy to get to the top, while two individuals makes it easier.
Most lifts will likewise have an Overspeed Governor, which monitors the speed of the lift. It is generally connected to the rails in the shaft and can stop the lift car without cables if required.
Hydraulic Passenger Lifts
Hydraulic lifts work on the principle: to rise up, a pump pushes oil into the cylinder, pushing the piston up (which pushes up the lift car). To go down, the valve opens and oil is allowed back into the reservoir, pushing it back using the gravitational force of the lift car.
When the valve is closed, the oil can only go from the reservoir into the cylinder. When the valve is open, the oil can only flow from the cylinder back into the reservoir.
The controls in the lift car make the pump work, moving the oil. At the point when a floor is reached, the pump is turned off and the lift car sits on top of the cylinder, held in position by the oil which is caught in the cylinder.
What is a Holed Hydraulic Lift?
A holed hydraulic lift is a conventional hydraulic lift. ‘Holed Hydraulic’ alludes to the hole needed in the floor for the lift. The cylinder which encases the piston and pushes the lift car extends out into the ground. The distance this extends is equivalent to the distance the lift car can travel upwards.
What is a Holeless Hydraulic Lift?
A hole-less hydraulic lift means no requirement for a deep pit for the cylinder. The pistons are immediate activity and are mounted on the floor of the pit in accordance with the bottom corners of the lift car. The system works like a jack, and confines travel to around 20-30m at most. This isn’t as normal, yet considering where space is confined going down, travel is short and a hydraulic system is required.
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